Issue 16 • 2019
Editorial | Issue 16
The speed at which social changes occur often leave theologians, scholars of religion, and church communities unable to respond in ways that are relevant to the current sociopolitical climate. The present context of increased targeted xenophobia—inside and outside the USA, of unmitigated racism which frequently characterizes entire communities as criminals, terrorists, or social threats, has conspired to create an environment of fear, heightened surveillance, and strategic sociopolitical maneuvering. Against this backdrop, targeted communities seek to resist oppression, marginalization, and discrimination. This strongly negative sociopolitical climate has failed to silence the impacted communities including Muslims, African Americans, and LatinaXos, among others.Read MoreCollapse
Instead, it has proven to be a fertile ground for multiple faith communities and individuals across the USA to come together to work to ameliorate the situation of many racialized people facing discrimination or deportation. At this critical historical juncture, this issue of Perspectivas is honored to include essays from multiple different academic, ministerial, and activist perspectives by varying scholars of religion and theology in their own attempt at responding to the present sociopolitical configuration faced by LatinaXo communities. The articles that follow and the presentations from a roundtable conversation showcase the rich creativity and relevance to these issues among scholars of religion and theology.
In the first article, Lloyd Barba and Tatyana Castillo-Ramos demonstrate how, in this most inhospitable social climate, church communities rise up prophetically in response to the present anti-immigrant policies in the United States of America. Their work traces the early emergence and development of the Sanctuary Movement during the 1980s which was spearheaded by church communities emboldened in their stance against policies that force individuals to risk their lives in the attempt to cross the USA-Mexico border. Barba and Castillo-Ramos aid us in understanding the level of engagement and commitment by entire church communities, counties, and municipalities in their attempt to create sanctuary spaces safe for undocumented immigrants. After a brief lull, they remind us, the movement seems to have regained energy with new strategies and actors involved since 2007, and a new label, the New Sanctuary Movement. But the authors also show the contested nature of the notion of “Sanctuary” and the multiple legal, social, political, and faith implications of its adoption by church communities, cities, counties, and municipalities. Crucial to this essay is the awareness of the growing involvement of LatinaXo church communities in Sanctuary efforts.
In the second article, Rodolfo Estrada III comes to us with a New Testament perspective. His biblical interpretive approach addresses the challenges and concerns faced by the DREAMER (Development, Relief, and Education for Alien Minors) generation, also known as those included in the DACA (Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals) immigration policy. Drawing on his Pentecostal tradition of understanding the Holy Spirit as active in the world, he takes the Johannine notion of the paraclete as it appears in Jesus’ farewell speech, as a theological cue for engaging in advocacy for undocumented children. His aim is to apply a pneumatological approach in support of socio–political engagement and in order to articulate a model for LatinaXos to think about advocacy for DREAMERS and other undocumented children and youth among LatinaXo communities. With a prophetic voice, Estrada III interprets the notion of paraclete in the gospel of John to elucidate a distinct divine act of protection for the vulnerable and marginalized DREAMERS.
Philip Wingeier-Rayo takes on the question of LatinaXo sociopolitical activism, in the third essay. In view of the fact that LatinaXos have become the largest ethnic minoritized group in the USA, he raises questions as to how LatinaXos can, in this new context of enormous discrimination, come together to organize in order to effect social change for the benefit of LatinaXo communities. He points out that the demographic growth among LatinaXos has not translated into increased political power and mobilization. Moreover, the mobilization in places where LatinaXo workers are in the majority, and with substantial population of DREAMERS, has not resulted in lasting immigration reforms so needed by many LatinaXos. In light of this reality, Wingeier-Rayo explores social justice activism in African American communities in the search of models from which LatinaXos can learn as they engage in social justice activism in their own contexts. He is not oblivious to the multiple hurdles LatinaXos communities have to face due to their internal ethnocultural, historical, and religious diversity. Nevertheless, he is able to look into the future, to the emergence of a larger social movement that will cut across ethnoracial background. In such a social movement, he predicts, LatinaXos must play a central role and constitute a key piece of the puzzle for social justice due to their sheer numbers.
These three papers are followed by a roundtable conversation organized by La Comunidad of Hispanic Scholars for Religion this past November (2018). The meeting took place in Denver, Colorado, as part of the American Academy of Religion conference. At that meeting, La Comunidad invited three scholars to reflect on the academic legacy and contribution to the field of hermeneutics of Professor Fernando S. Segovia, in relation to the recent phenomenon of “Fake News.” We are honored that the three presentations are published in this issue of Perspectivas and that the President of La Comunidad, Professor Loida Martell-Otero, has written a brief editorial introduction. Together these roundtable discussions provide readers with a sampling of the richness of this conversation and a celebration of Professor Segovia’s work.
We, the team at Perspectivas, hope that this issue proves resourceful for LatinaXo scholars interested in some of the developments discussed in the papers here contained. Migration and sanctuary, LatinaXo biblical approaches to the question of DREAMERS, and the intersection between marginalization and social activism are pressing issues in today’s increasingly xenophobic reality. As shown here, LatinaXos scholars are the forefront of those debates.
Sacred Resistance: The Sanctuary Movement from Reagan to TrumpAbstract:By Lloyd Barba, PhD and Tatyana Castillo-Ramos
From the origins of the U.S. Sanctuary Movement in the 1980s to the declaration of the New Sanctuary Movement (NSM) in 2007 and the new wave of NSM activism starting in 2016, sanctuary seekers, workers, and leaders have enacted various kinds of sacred resistance to respond to the shifting contexts of immigration crises.Read MoreCollapse / Download Issue
This article offers a conceptual framework to unpack the history and polyvalent meaning of the term “sanctuary” today. We argue that since Trump’s election, we are experiencing a second wave of the New Sanctuary Movement.Resistencia Sagrada: El Movimiento Santuario desde Reagan a TrumpResumen:Por Lloyd Barba,PhD and Tatyana Castillo-Ramos
Desde los orígenes del Movimiento Santuario en Los Estados Unidos de América en la década de los 1980s a la declaración del Nuevo Movimiento Santuario (NMS) en 2007 y la nueva ola de activismo del NMS en 2016, buscadores, trabajadores, y líderes de santuario han adoptado varias clases de resistencia para responder a los contextos cambiantes de las crisis migratorias.Leer MásLeer Menos / Descargar este ejemplar
Este artículo ofrece un marco conceptual para desempacar la historia y el significado del término “santuario” hoy. Argumentamos que, desde la elección de Donald Trump, se está experimentando una segunda ola del Nuevo Movimiento Santuario.
What does the Paraclete have to do with Dreamers? A Pneumatological Paradigm for Latino/a Social–Political AdvocacyAbstract:
By Rodolfo Estrada III
This article explores the relationship between social–political activism for Dreamers and the Johannine Spirit–Paraclete. It seeks to answer the question: what does the Paraclete have to do with Dreamers? The article proposes that we reconsider Johannine pneumatology for social–political activism by reimagining the Paraclete’s forensic identity and activity.Read MoreCollapse / Download Issue
In particular, I explore how the Farewell Discourse of the Fourth Gospel describes the Paraclete within a literary context of child abandonment and need for advocacy. In addition, the metaphor for “orphan” in antiquity illuminates further aspects of the Paraclete’s role as an advocate for the defenseless. The Paraclete’s activity is not only applicable to the disciples, but also to Dreamers who are legislatively orphaned and abandoned by their own “fatherland” today. Finally, I explore how the Paraclete paradigm is reflected in the life of Sayra Lozano, a Pentecostal Latina advocate and Dreamer.What does the Paraclete have to do with Dreamers? A Pneumatological Paradigm for Latino/a Social–Political AdvocacyResumen:
Por Rodolfo Estrada III
Este artículo explora la relación entre activismo social-político para los Soñadores y el paracleto-Espíritu joánico. Este mismo busca la respuesta a la siguiente pregunta: ¿Qué tiene que ver el Paracleto con los Soñadores? Se propone que debemos reconsiderar la neumatología joánica para el activismo social-político reimaginando la actividad forense del paracleto.Leer MásLeer Menos / Descargar este ejemplar
En particular, exploro como el discurso de despedida de Jesús en el cuarto evangelio describe el paracleto dentro de un contexto literario de abandono de niños/as y la necesidad de defenderlos/as. Además, se usa la metáfora del “huerfano/a” en la antigüedad para iluminar otros aspectos del papel del paracleto como defensor de los/as indefensos/as. La actividad del paracleto no es solamente aplicable a los discípulos, sino también a los Soñadores quienes son legislativamente huérfanos y abandonados por su “tierra natal” hoy. Finalmente, exploro como el paradigma del Paracleto se refleja en la vida de Sayra Lozano, una Latina Pentecostal que aboga por los/as Soñadores/as.
Now That Latinxs Are the Largest Racialized Group in the U.S.A., What Can Be Learned from African Americans?Abstract:
By Philip Wingeier-Rayo
Over the last few years the Latinx population has surpassed African Americans as the largest ethnic minority group in the United States. In spite of its numerical growth, the Latinx communities have less political power than African Americans.Read MoreCollapse / Download Issue
In spite of efforts by a few activists, the broader Latinx communities are not as politically active due to internal divisions such as country of origin and immigration status. The Latinx community can learn from the political activism of African Americans, who are more united with a common experience. Younger generations of people of color are already doing this through intersectionality.Now That Latinxs Are the Largest Racialized Group in the U.S.A., What Can Be Learned from African Americans?Resumen:
Por Philip Wingeier-Rayo
Durante los últimos años la población latinx ha sobrepasado a los afro-Americanos como el grupo étnico más numeroso en el país. A pesar de este crecimiento numérico, las comunidades latinx en general tienen menos poder político que los Afro-Americanos.Leer MásLeer Menos / Descargar este ejemplar
A pesar de esfuerzos por muchos activistas, las comunidades latinx no son muy activas políticamente debido a divisiones internas tales como país de origen y estatus migratorio. Las comunidades latinx pueden aprender del activismo político de los Afro-Americanos, quienes son más unidos y comparten una experiencia común. Las generaciones más jóvenes de personas de color ya están haciendo eso a través de interseccionalidad.
SPECIAL EDITION: Fake News vs. Good News: Texts, Tweets and Technology – A Roundtable ConversationAbstract:By Loida I. Martell
Introduction: On November of 2018, La Comunidad of Hispanic Scholars of Religion gathered during the annual meeting of the American Academy of Religion (AAR) and Society of Biblical Literature (SBL) in Denver, Colorado. La Comunidad (literally, “the community”) is the oldest organization of Latinx scholars recognized by AAR/SBL, founded in 1989.Read MoreCollapse / Download Issue
During the 2018 gathering, La Comunidad presented Dr. Fernando S. Segovia with the Lifetime Achievement Award in recognition of his “lifetime of scholarship and service on behalf of the Latinx community.” In light of this award, and to highlight Segovia’s hermeneutical and methodological approaches to Scripture, particularly in postmodern and postcolonial critical analysis, panelists were invited to speak on “Fake News vs. Good News: Texts, Tweets and Technology,” from scholarly and grassroots perspectives. The meeting was sponsored in collaboration with the Latina/o and Latin American Interpretation Group, and co-presided by Dr. Ahida Pilarski (St. Anselm College) and Dr. Loida I. Martell (Lexington Theological Seminary). This issue of Perspectivas is proud to include the papers presented by the panelists in 2018.EDICIÓN ESPECIAL: “Noticias Falsas vs. Buenas Noticias: textos, tweets y tecnología” – Una mesa redondaResumen:Por Loida I. Martell
Introducción: En noviembre del 2018, La Comunidad de Académicos Hispanos de la Religión se reunió durante la conferencia anual de la Academia Americana de Religión (AAR) y la sociedad de Literatura Bíblica (SLB) en Denver Colorado. La Comunidad es la organización más antigua de académicos Latinx reconocida por la /AAR/SLB, y fundada en 1989.Leer MásLeer Menos / Descargar este ejemplar
Durante la reunión en el 2018, La Comunidad le presentó al Dr. Fernando S. Segovia el Premio de Logros de Toda una Vida en reconocimiento de “toda su vida académica y servicio en nombre de la comunidad Latinx”A la luz de este premio, y para resaltar los enfoques hermenéutico y metodológico de Segovia a las escrituras, particularmente en el análisis crítico posmoderno y poscolonial, se invitó a panelistas a hablar sobre “Noticias Falsas vs. Buenas Noticias: textos, tweets y tecnología”, de perspectivas académicas y de base. La reunión fue patrocinada en colaboración con el Grupo de Interpretación Latina/o y América Latina, y copresidida por la Dra. Ahida Pilarski (St. Anselm College) y Dra. Loida I. Martell (Lexington Theological Seminary). Esta edición de Perspectivas se enorgullece de incluir las ponencias de estos panelistas en 2018.
ROUNDTABLE ESSAY #1 – The Bible and Global-Systemic Criticism in the Age of “Fake News”Abstract:
By Jacqueline M. HidalgoROUNDTABLE ESSAY #1 – The Bible and Global-Systemic Criticism in the Age of “Fake News”Resumen:
Por Jacqueline M. Hidalgo
ROUNDTABLE ESSAY #2 – Competing Narratives, Memes, and Going Viral as Socio-Theological Reflection and Resistance for US Latinxs communities: a Hebrew Bible perspectiveAbstract:
By Corinna GuerreroROUNDTABLE ESSAY #2 – Competing Narratives, Memes, and Going Viral as Socio-Theological Reflection and Resistance for US Latinxs communities: a Hebrew Bible perspectiveResumen:
Por Corinna Guerrero
ROUNDTABLE ESSAY #3 – Speaking in Other Tongues Fernando Segovia’s Contributions to Discerning “Fake News”Abstract:
By Santiago SlabodskyROUNDTABLE ESSAY #3 – Speaking in Other Tongues Fernando Segovia’s Contributions to Discerning “Fake News”Resumen:
Por Santiago Slabodsky
HTI Book Reviews
Cain, Abel, and the Politics of God: An Agambenian Reading of Genesis 4:1-16, By Julián Andrés González Holguín. Routledge, 2018. 192 pages. $112.00.
Spanning the Divide: Latinos/as in Theological Education, By Edwin I. Hernández, Milagros Peña, Caroline Sotello Viernes Turner, & Ariana Monique Salazar. Asociación para la Educación Teológica Hispana, 2016. 490 pages. $35.00.
Benjamin D. Espinoza
Michigan State University
Dogmatics After Babel: Beyond Theologies of Word and Culture, By Rubén Rosario Rodríguez. Westminster John Knox Press, 2018. xix+221 pages. $40.00.
Fellipe do Vale
Southern Methodist University
The World Come of Age: An Intellectual History of Liberation Theology, By Lilian Calles Barger. Oxford University Press, 2018. 376 pages. $34.95.
Graduate Theological Union
A Puerto Rican Decolonial Theology: Prophesy Freedom, by Teresa Delgado. Palgrave McMillan, 2017. xv + 204 pages. $99.99.
A Puerto Rican Decolonial Theology: Prophesy Freedom, By Teresa Delgado. Palgrave McMillan, 2017. xv + 204 pages. $99.99.
Claremont School of Theology